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dc.contributor.authorWong, Fiona
dc.contributor.authorHung, Hayley
dc.contributor.authorDryfhout-Clark, Helena
dc.contributor.authorAas, Wenche
dc.contributor.authorBohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla
dc.contributor.authorBreivik, Knut
dc.contributor.authorMastromonaco, Michelle N.
dc.contributor.authorBrorström-Lundén, Eva
dc.contributor.authorÓlafsdóttir, Kristín
dc.contributor.authorSigurdsson, Arni
dc.contributor.authorVorkamp, Katrin
dc.contributor.authorBossi, Rossana
dc.contributor.authorSkov, Henrik
dc.contributor.authorHakola, Hannele
dc.contributor.authorBarresi, Enzo
dc.contributor.authorSverko, Ed
dc.contributor.authorFellin, Phil
dc.contributor.authorLi, Henrik
dc.contributor.authorVlasenko, Alexander
dc.contributor.authorZapevalov, Mikhail
dc.contributor.authorSamsonov, Dmitry
dc.contributor.authorWilson, Simon
dc.identifier.citationScience of the Total Environment. 2021, 775, 145109.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe long-term time trends of atmospheric pollutants at eight Arctic monitoring stations are reported. The work was conducted under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) of the Arctic Council. The monitoring stations were: Alert, Canada; Zeppelin, Svalbard; Stórhöfði, Iceland; Pallas, Finland; Andøya, Norway; Villum Research Station, Greenland; Tiksi and Amderma, Russia. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), α-endosulfan, chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) showed declining trends in air at all stations. However, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), one of the initial twelve POPs listed in the Stockholm Convention in 2004, showed either increasing or non-changing trends at the stations. Many POPs demonstrated seasonality but the patterns were not consistent among the chemicals and stations. Some chemicals showed winter minimum and summer maximum concentrations at one station but not another, and vice versa. The ratios of chlordane isomers and DDT species showed that they were aged residues. Time trends of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were showing decreasing concentrations at Alert, Zeppelin and Andøya. The Chemicals of Emerging Arctic Concern (CEAC) were either showing stable or increasing trends. These include methoxychlor, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), 6:2 fluorotelomer alcohol, and C9-C11 perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). We have demonstrated the importance of monitoring CEAC before they are being regulated because model calculations to predict their transport mechanisms and fate cannot be made due to the lack of emission inventories. We should maintain long-term monitoring programmes with consistent data quality in order to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical control efforts taken by countries worldwide.en_US
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleTime trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and Chemicals of Emerging Arctic Concern (CEAC) in Arctic air from 25 years of monitoringen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.rights.holderCrown Copyright © 2021 Published by Elsevier B.V.en_US
dc.source.journalScience of the Total Environmenten_US
dc.relation.projectNILU: 110035en_US

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internasjonal